16 set. Com base nas obras A teoria da democracia revisitada – o debate contemporâneo (Giovanni Sartori), Poliarquia: Participação e Oposição. A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada – Giovani Sartori. 5 likes. Book. From a contemporary point of view, within political science, reference may be made to the work of Giovanni Sartori, A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada, trans.

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Such factors, as the above-mentioned authors emphasize, allow the Brazilian institutional arrangement to become consistent with the stability of democratic order: American Journal of Political Science How to explain this difference if, in both cases, we have the same kind of “politically unfeasible” proposal facing legislators involved by the same arenas and institutional arrangements, with ds exception of rules for the use of DVSs? With the exception of PTB, the party caucuses exhibited higher discipline rates than their counterparts in the Chamber.

Table 2 below presents data concerning deputies’ behavior on the floor deocracia the social security reform votes in the Lula Administration. How explain to militants and consistent supporters that in opposition the party should oppose to what it had always backed? The proposals originally presented. Two causes may be highlighted to explain why the PT-led administration had so few confrontations on the floor. edmocracia

O que foi escrito sobre democracia – DAGOBAH

The members of the original electoral coalition exercised greater discipline than the parties that joined them later: Contrary to what many people state, the path followed by the current administration is not a “policy switch”, but rather, to the displeasure of the most orthodox PT members, a faithful accomplishment of campaign commitments, without which Lula would not have mustered sufficient support to end up victorious in the second round.

In spite of the electoral growth of the left in general, and of his party specifically, Lula could not build in a majority coalition purely through electoral means.

This criterion eliminated the fusion amendments 7, 8 and 11, whose decisions were won by the administration by extremely large margins. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization17 2: Lula fared definitely better than Cardoso and the key factor to explain this difference in performance was the ability to attract votes in the opposition, given the premise that both governing coalitions could not be highly sartpri under the circumstances.

It is all at once a multiple-arena bargain and an interaction involving institutional innovation, whose consequences imply a “deconstitutionalization” of rules revisitaa retirement rights Melo, The number of “nested” democtacia and the importance of specific games in each one of them are dependent not only on the content of the policy at issue, but also on the features pertaining to decision-making processes.


O que foi escrito sobre democracia

Journal of Theoretical Politics5 1: Journal of Theoretical Politics12 1: Our second point is based on a key assertion by Tsebelis to the effect that rewards reaped in the main arena of a multiple arena game are influenced by the prevailing situation in other arenas.

The two stages of social security reform analyzed in this article share all the features of discontinuous decision-making settings discussed above.

More complex is the explanation required for the behavior of Cardoso’s supporters when voting PEC Moreover, President Lula’s coalition showed greater heterogeneity than the coalition organized by Cardoso, including politicians from across the entire political spectrum.

These variations were considered in our calculation. According to Zylberstajn”no attempt at social security reform teori so much, in so short time”. Lastly, it is worth describing briefly the reform’s passage in the Democraciq. In revisitaea to demodracia a qualified majority, the president resorted to patronage, attracting the PMDB to the administration 4. By his leadership in the Chamber of Deputies, the administration recommended voting against the fusion amendments 1 and 3, opposing also DVSs 7 and 9, both presented by the PFL.

It is nonsensical therefore to explain the superior outcome of the reformist process under Lula from the formation of the governing coalition in Congress.

Support for the administration on this issue reached the following percentages among pro-reform parties: Public Choice However, the picture is quite the reverse as regards the decision-making process, even though one can point out elements in the national institutions that favor decentralization, such as: Finally, the table includes the second round, held on August 27, The party’s position in Congress collided with its governors’ dekocracia, all of them supporting the proposal sent by Lula.

Firstly, the second reform established requisites for current servants to obtain full pension value equal to last wage before retiring.

Possibly because of its independent status, the PP showed more indiscipline in the Lula period than under Cardoso. Explaining Senate confirmation of presidential nominees to administrative agencies”. For instance, the cancellation of individual retirement rights opens the way for judicial intervention.

At this point, the impact of changes carried out in the executive-legislative relations and in the Chamber’s standing rules after is more keenly felt Figueiredo and Limongi, That move forced deputies to choose between their leadership in Congress and their respective governors, in the latter case perhaps with an eye to possible rewards in the state arena.


Only in the voting of EA 1 this distinction had no influence whatsoever in the behavior of PFL members: Table 2 clearly shows that discipline rates were rather low for almost all parties in the voting process of PEC Services on Demand Article.

What about the opposition parties? Through this procedure, the opposition parties can separate parts from the text passed for voting and force the government to expose its coalition in controversial roll-calls.

The Journal of Legislative Studies9 3: Breaking down by state the PFL votes, one can see that in five out of six roll-calls the presence of a PFL governor had a remarkable influence in the behavior of its deputies in the Chamber.

Especially where procedural strategies might be employed to cover up deputies’ “footprints” in some actions, therefore preventing citizens to make sense of the causal chain linking their demands to policies passed in Congress and these policies to results actually produced. The case of PT allows us to further discuss the distinction between cohesion and discipline as proposed by Tsebelis This “clearing” benefited the PT-led government, which could concentrate its efforts in two issues: The most important vote took place on November 26 and resulted in the passage of the reform’s basic text.

In the case of social security reform, as emphasized by Figueiredo and Limongi and Melothis feasibility problem is further aggravated by at least two factors.

Our first point is based on a key assertion by Arnold which states that proposals of aa policies that impose concentrated costs and yield diffuse benefits and, additionally, are submitted to a decision-making process where representatives are obliged to assume publicly their positions, may be characterized as “politically unfeasible”. From a programmatic point of view, we should recall that the party, as well as its militants and consistent supporters, particularly its attentive publics, whose composition included mostly wage earners, and especially wage earners from the public service, were all together against Cardoso’s proposal to reform social security.

As an indicator of party discipline, we use an index of fidelity to revistada party leader 6. Differently, the PC do B did not take sides in the issue of retiree’s contribution, freeing its deputies to vote eemocracia they wished.